Historical Overview and Concepts Ideal BMT at the time of the Prophet
According to the theory of ownership : Islamic perspective , ownership of property was divided into two private property (personal ownership / milkiyah fardiyah ) both ownership (public ownership / milikiyah amma ) . What are the assets will be divided in the two forms of ownership . Operate in the financial , anywhere in the world will require state agencies. The institute will split the first two financial institutions financial control in the public interest and become public property or public (public finance ) , and there are financial institutions that control the individual interests of either to invest or to obtain financial facilities in a business or personal purposes . From the time of the Prophet , hammas Rosyidin , Daula in Syrian Umayyad dynasty to the descendants of the Ottoman in Turkey daulah most prominent is BMT . The money they use to build the country , good education , technology , and so on . The issue of personal finance or personal finance it flow between individuals in society , the state does not interfere . ( Capital , 11 November 2003 ) .
At the end of the caliphate of Abu Bakr . property owned by the Muslims very abundant . That's what pushed Abu Bakr made his home as a place of gathering and storage assets akam state then allocated to people in need . Umar bin khathab ra is the first drafter in the formation of Baitul Mal as an institution and the storage allocation of wealth of the Muslims in the broad sense . ( yusuf ibrahim yusuf in Marthon : 2004)
Reviewing the Implementation BMT At Current
BMT can be originated from a Self-Help Group ( SHG ) is not a formal legal entity . While the establishment of the capital , PINBUK , one escort agency BMT , only requires an initial capital of five million dollars . However , as the number of turns BMT serve about 330,000 new small businesses or micro course ( Timberg in Widyaningrum , 2002: 4 ) With the Pakto ( package of measures in October 1988 ) has opened up opportunities for the growth of new banks and branch offices of existing banks with paid-up capital set 10 billion dollars to private banks and the minimum capital of 50 million dollars for the establishment of the new BPR ( Indef , 1990:50-51 ) . As a result of this policy is the proliferation of banks and BPRs new . Various distortions that appear in the Pakto then tried revised with the January 1990 policy package include requiring banks to 20 % of the total loan portfolio for small businesses . This provision is felt heavily by the banking sector in Indonesia who are not experienced in lending and small except BRI BUKOPIN . ( Widyaningrum : 2002)
Actually BMT has been known since the early 80's with the establishment of the Baitul tamwil Teknosa in London and BT Ridho Gusti in Jakarta , but they did not had time to develop ( gatherers in Widyaningrum : 2002) . Micro finance institutions ( MFIs ) in Indonesia has proven that can grow and thrive in the community and to serve micro and small businesses , is accepted as a source of financing members ( SMEs ) , independent and rooted in the community , enough number and widespread distribution , being close to the people , can reach ( serving ) members and the public , have the funds lending procedures and requirements that can be met by its members ( without collateral ) , to help solve the problem of the need for funds is not accessible to the poor , reduce development release money ( money lenders ) , help drive productive business community , MFIs are owned solely by nmasyrakat so that any surplus generated by the non-bank MFIs can return enjoyed by the customer as the owner .
Each BMT try to socialize and develop their business . BMT is an effort to socialize , as performed by BMT Al Azhar University , which was established August 26, 1995 is after Al Azhar elementary students home from school , they do not immediately go home but went straight to BMT transform and depositing the remainder of their allowance . BMT is providing their services to also to nearby residents Markets weeks , Depok , Cipayung , Chester. With financing products Mudharobah , Murahbahah , and they hasan Qardhul homre finance industry , food stalls , printing and photocopies . Qordhul hasan financing this fund utntuk victims of natural disasters, accidents , and require the poor yng . ( Capital : 11 September 2003 ) BMT bina Dhuafa Beringharjo socialize themselves with the role of caretaker approached merchants and Asr at midday Waku talking about BMT and products offered . BMT is doing the cost of education , skill development unrtuk students , landfill , etc. . Social finance , social services , scholarships , GEPERA ( Movement of the People 's empowerment ) ( Capital , December 11, 2003 )
BMT BMT Muamalat issued Dinar program with the aim of introducing financial instruments used time of the Prophet , Islam uamat Empowering productivity because gold has an intrinsic value that is much more uncertain , so the value of gold does not go down as the inspiration for the investment community . The concept for the results of the cooperation agreement ( musyarokah or mudaraba ) which requires pemlik bear capital loss is the concept of allowing the inclusion of other forms of assistance outside the capital . BMT as investors , concerned that the loaned funds can be returned by an amount greater than the system of interest . Therefore , BMT can intervene for example in the case of a management of the business so that customers can get a smooth and nice profit , thus BMT will also get the great results too with the gold dinar coins . ( Capital , January 11, 2004 )
BMT first extant today is BMT Bina Insan Kamil , established in early 1992 . BMT , with the form of informal institutions ( in the form of self-help groups ) and formal with the legal form of cooperatives , small businesses reach more easily . His status as a non-bank financial institutions release of BMT banking obligations . ( Widyaningrum , 2003: 45 ) The potential development of microfinance institutions is still widespread due to micro and small businesses can not fully served or reached by existing services MFI , the MFI at the center of the community , while the potential of saving by the public because of the low absorption diderah investment , especially in rural areas , support of domestic and international institutions are strong enough . Market segmentation microfinance institutions in general are a group of micro-enterprises that are considered by the bank does not have adequate requirements , do not have sufficient collateral , high transaction cost / high , the poor location not within the branch.
Optimizing the role of BMT in Developing Entrepreneurship
According Sutrisno in Al - Idrus (2005 ) the position of SMEs in the Indonesian economy can not be seen from his position as the main actors in economic activity in various sectors , large employers , and an important player in the development of local economic activity and pmberdayaan masyarakat.Mengingat importance the role of SMEs it is necessary to look for a solution that can accelerate the motion of SMEs in order to buffer the national economy . BMT is trying to help financial institutions develop pembiaayaan BMT especially in SMEs is still little touched by other financial institutions .
BMT is seen in its development so far has not been fully able to address real economic problems that exist among the community , because of problems that have not been educated and HR professionals , HR management and development ser ta culture of entrepreneurial spirit ( entrepreneurship ) low levels of trust capital of masyrkat , no formula belunm perfect flatform unruk develop LKS . ( Mind , 29 November2004 ) To achieve the goal of increasing the use of capital for investment or value -added process 2 steps that must be taken are: improving access of SMEs to financing facilities that have been provided . In the group of microcredit providers need the development of small -scale institutional network to be effective dlam Micro services are often portrayed as the ability of SMEs to capital is low. SMEs lack access to formal financial institutions so that only 12 % of SMEs have access to bank loans : a bank product does not conform with the requirements and conditions of SMEs , the notion of the magnitude of the risk of excessive SME credit , SME credit Transaction costs are relatively high , less fulfilled the technical requirements of banks ( collateral , proposals, limited access of SMEs to equity financing , SME credit monitoring and collection is inefficient , ineffective technical assistance and still be provided by the bank itself to biya SME service expensive , generally not accustomed denagn bank financing to SMEs . briefly bank credit held The above commercial considerations make it difficult SMEs meet the technical requirements of banks , especially about the collateral and other administrative requirements .
At this time , BMT challenge facing considerable challenges in developing entrepreneurship among which :
1 . The low paradigm of thought as well as the public response to the Islamic system . It can be seen from the results of a case study in BMT assisted foundations gatherers Bogor .
Widyaningrum (2002 : vi ) conduct experiments with the following results :
A total of 61 respondents ( 41 % ) expressed only know a little about the Islamic system , and 71responden ( 47 % ) claimed not to know , and only 18 ( 12 % ) who claimed to know about the BMT system . Less concerned for partners against the Islamic system compared to the system of interest can be seen from the reasons they chose BMT , which dominate in the ease of the procedure is the reason , relief requirements , fast service , and sisem " proactive " performed BMT . Only 10 % of the total respondents explicitly mention religious reason . Respondents who know the essence of the difference is this system of interest and profit-sharing system .
2 . BMT still have performance limitations in reaching out to customers of small and micro entrepreneurs .
3 . While most complaints filed by the respondents is the maximum loan ceiling is still small loans disbursed sera smaller than proposed .
4 . Another complaint is the ratio of profit sharing or mark up . According to respondents, the ratio for the results or a mark-up that must be submitted to BMT is too large can be even greater than the loan installments and interest to the bank . The complaint indicates that at least an understanding of the partners sharing system is not the same as understanding BMT . ( Widyaningrum : 2002)
Meanwhile, prospects or opportunities that may be used by BMT in developing entrepreneurship are :
1 . Selection of the Islamic Economic System in the application of BMT , carrying the impact :
More in line with the beliefs and culture of the lower layers of the predominantly Islamic .
More equitable than either interest .
Has the advantage to support the empowerment movement , among other things : honesty and openness grow , cultivate the ability to analyze saha , entrenched deliberation , bargaining raise awareness , train an opinion
For the lower income community which is predominantly Muslim , in cooperation with a system which he believed would encourage spirituality mempuk and so bermafaat world and the hereafter
Islamic system more resilient critical . ( Widyaningrum , 2002: 48 )
2 . BMT is not a bank , so it is more flexible because it is not bound degan technical requirements of banks .
3 . BMT combines economic and social functions , so in addition to spurring growth and equity , also maintain solidarity among members .
4 . Open to all community groups
5 . Providing services is relatively easier and faster
6 . Community Response Against BMT is quite good .
Widyaningrum (2002 : vi ) conduct experiments with the following results :
The majority of partners said never get in trouble with the procedure of BMT financing . From the correspondence requirements 92.7 % of respondents had never experienced difficulties , 94 % of respondents find it difficult to meet the requirements is never a guarantee . Ease of the procedure and requirements also felt mainly when partner experiencing congestion payments .
7 . From the time of completion of the loan process from application is submitted to liquefaction , BMT relaif fast compared to other formal financial institutions (eg banks or cooperatives ) but more slowly when compared with the informal financial institutions are like sharks or kinship .
8 . Indonesian Moslem majority community and the institutions run by Islamic principles .
9 . Ease in terms of establishment of BMT
The role of BMT for micro small and medium enterprises are :
1 . Open access to sources of capital accumulation beyond its own benefit .
2 . Helps maintain business continuity .
As a provider of working capital , BMT helps maintain the sustainability of the business . Even in certain circumstances , for example, capital is sucked by the needs of the family , BMT can provide loans without the agreement of results with Qardhul hasan .
3 . In the old partners and business partners with the capital accumulation phase , BMT can be a source of capital for investment or diversification .
In this study it was found that the composition of BMT biggest partner is a partner that has increased revenue . BMT plays a major role in increasing household income . The presence of BMT can maintain regularity source of family income partners , enabling partners to save or invest , as well as adding the source of family income . ( Widyaningrum , 2002: ix )
It is common knowledge , especially for banks that SME is marketing and underwriting financing . In contrast to India , for example, a full government guarantee loans to MSEs through a surety company for a small business loan or credit Guaranteefund trust for mall industries ( CGFTSI ) . It is time we , the provincial government at least begin to formulate a blueprint for Master Plan Development of Micro, small and medium enterprises . ( Suara Merdeka , 26 April 2005 )
Development of entrepreneurship in Indonesia must be the responsibility of all parties and before BMT trying trying to develop entrepreneurship in Indonesia , the first BMT must be optimized in order to fix internal conditions BMT provable performance qualities .