Comparative Theory and Cooperative Cooperative Sharia Conventional
Discussion of cooperative sharia is enriched discussion of terminology initially , cooperative . So it can be stated that cooperatives have the option of sharia in the cooperative option : as an alternative or as a variant .
In terms of language , derived from the word cooperative means of cooperation Cooperation ( Shadily & Echols : 2000 ) . While Abrahamson (1976 ) stated that the co-operative owned by its members, who are service users ( users) . This fact distinguishes the cooperative efforts of entities ( companies ) Other forms that the owner is essentially a capital growers . Meanwhile, according to Mubyarto ( 2003) is a cooperative association of persons or legal entity not a bevy of capital . Only then became a question whether sharia can be regarded as cooperative Cooperative ? What exactly is the cooperative ?
Explaining cooperative definitive sharia in the framework through the identification criteria ( identity criterion ) be the right choice . Identity identifies the criterion of personal identity between the owners and the customers (suppliers , employees / employee , depending on the type of cooperatives ) that distinguish cooperatives from other business organizations . ( Ropke , 2002) .
Rochdale principle was first initiated by the cooperative principle . Rochdale ( 1844 ) itself is a form of cooperative first aimed to anticipate the needs of the oppressed workers will supply the consumption needs of the entrepreneurs who controlled so the price is within their control ( Prayudi : 2005) is still the basic principle ( basis ) of the cooperative movement internacional , ie :
1 . membership is open
2 . One person, one vote
3 . cash sales
4 . Returns the interest rate restrictions on capital ;
5 . Distribution of net income ( SHU ) is comparable to transactions made members
6 . Emphasizing on education elements
7 . Neutral in religion and politics
According to the Identity criteria criterion , although the whole Rochdale principles eliminated , but we still can provide characteristics for an organization according to other criteria ( criteria of identity ) where the owner is synonymous with service users " cooperative " . ( Ropke : 2002) . So it can be taken the view that Sharia can be categorized as a cooperative of cooperatives .
Cooperative philosophy in general is approaching this concept . However , it still needs some refinement even change , in order to really suit sharia . Live a little sharpening and modification in some aspects , so that the cooperative has sharia soul perfectly . The adjustment was , for example , a cooperative foundation sharia should be appropriate to the Qur'an and Sunna imbued the spirit of mutual help ( / ta'aawun / ) and mutually reinforcing ( / takaaful / ) . Cooperatives should enforce Sharia Islamic principles such as :
1 . Believes that wealth is God's mandate can not be owned by anyone implicitly ;
2 . Muamalah given to human freedom throughout is consistent with Islamic law ;
3 . Humans are the vicegerent of Allah and pemakmur earth ;
4 . Upholding justice and reject all forms of usury and the concentration of economic resources in a few hands . ( Prayudi : 2005)
Because it does not know the shape of usury , then there is no interest on capital in the cooperative sharia . The concept of interest is replaced by profit-sharing system . Similarly in the case together , in a cooperative sharia is not interpreted as a democracy with one person, one vote . However , solidarity should be translated as deliberation . When viewed from the existence of principal , mandatory and voluntary , cooperative sharia can basically founded on the principle / shirkah mufawadhah / and / syirkatul inan / . / Shirkah mufawadhah / is a partnership between two or more people , with each party contributing funds (principal and mandatory ) are the same . While siinpanan voluntarily depends on each member . Another form is / syirkatul inan / , which is a consortium of two or more people with kontribtísi funds from each member of the syndicate varies . Funds were developed together and sharing keuntungarmya by mutual agreement . One thing that should be agreed upon , the main mission is to develop the welfare of member cooperatives through investment and other endeavors .. ( Prayudi : 2005)